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Stuckindmud
PostPosted: Mon Dec 10, 2007 4:43 pm 
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Fuel System Maintenance
by Don Casey

"Give a diesel engine clean fuel and it will run forever." This old saw is less of an exaggeration than you might think. Repair statistics show that 90% of diesel engine problems stem from contaminated fuel. The promise of eliminating 9 out of 10 potential failures should put fuel-system maintenance at the top of your list.

Start With Clean Fuel
Don't make your task more difficult by taking on contaminated fuel. The bad things that happen to diesel fuel inside your tank, which I am going to describe momentarily, also occur inside the supplier's storage tanks. That isn't a problem for you if the fuel is efficiently filtered on the way to the nozzle. If you have any doubts about the cleanliness of the fuel, pump some into a clean glass jar and let it sit a few minutes. Water and dirt will settle to the bottom. If you see either, filter the fuel before it goes into the tank, or better yet, buy your fuel somewhere else.

Keep Out Water
Gasoline engines can ingest a certain amount of water with the fuel without serious consequences, but if a single droplet of water in diesel fuel makes it all the way to the cylinder, the sudden steaming of the water can blow the tip right off an injector. This is the reason for having a water-separating filter, but too much water in the fuel can overwhelm this filter.

If you took aboard dry fuel, shouldn't it stay dry inside your tank? No. Contaminated fuel is only one way water gets into the fuel aboard boats. It also leaks in around the fill cap, it is occasionally driven in through a flooded vent fitting, and it forms inside the tank as condensation.

You already know to check any doubtful source to protect against pumping fuel aboard that already has water in it. But have you ever checked the seal on your deck fill? Some have O-rings (missing?), some have gaskets, and some depend on tight metal to metal or plastic to metal contact to seal.


Water also condenses out of the air inside the tank. Due to the daily heating/cooling cycle, a small amount of moisture will condense out of the air every day. The more air in the tank, the more potential for condensation, so it is a good idea to keep tanks topped off, especially while not being used.

Prevent Algae
Like mold on bread, algae and fungi can thrive inside fuel tanks. These microbes require both fuel and water, so the drier the fuel, the smaller your algae problem is likely to be. However, keeping all water out of the fuel is improbable, so diesel fuel should always be treated with a biocide to prevent the growth of microbes. Avoid products that contain alcohol, which attacks O-rings and other rubber parts in the fuel system.

Tank Care
No matter how meticulous you are about the fuel you take aboard, dirt, water, and microbes-dead or alive-accumulate in the bottom of the tank over time. They may seem harmless enough just lying there, but the first time you are motoring in bumpy conditions, they get churned up and find their way to the fuel pick-up, either in small amounts or in big gulps. If you are lucky, this contamination simply plugs your primary filter and starves the engine of fuel until it dies-hopefully not at some critical moment. If you are unlucky, some of this debris finds a way past the filters and damages the injector pump ($$!) or the engine ($$$$!!).

It is advisable to clean out the tank periodically. How often depends on fuel quality and even tank material, but every couple of years you should at least draw some fuel from the very bottom of the tank to check for water and/or sediment. You cannot do this through the pick-up tube feeding the engine because it is an inch or so above the bottom. If the tank doesn't have a drain fitting or a clean-out port, you will need to find some other way to get a suction hose to the bottom.

Mobile services are also available that draw all the fuel out of your tank and circulate it through a filtration system. This is known as "polishing" the fuel, and done properly it removes the majority of the sediment from the tank.

Fuel Lines
Proper fuel lines last a long time, but improper lines can shed internally and contribute to fuel contamination. Metal fuel lines are less susceptible to chemical deterioration, but the supply line connected to the engine must never be metal because movement and vibration will eventually cause the rigid line to crack. Flexible hose is unaffected by vibration . Makes sure the feed hose is Type A-1. If it is, that designation will be stenciled on the hose. Vent and fill hoses can be Type A-2. Fill lines should exhibit an uninterrupted drop to the tank; any dip that allows fuel to stand risks hose deterioration and fuel contamination.

Filters
There is a reason that the fuel filter mounted on a diesel engine is called the secondary filter. The engine manufacturer expects this filter to deal only with contamination small enough to have passed through the primary filter. Every diesel engine must have both a primary and a secondary filter, and the primary filter must remove water from the fuel. I prefer a primary filter with a clear sediment bowl, which should be inspected daily. Water in the bowl is visible evidence of water in the tank. If you need to drain the bowl (it has a plug just for this function) more often than every 100 engine hours, the tank needs cleaning.

Filters should be changed when they are dirty, but unless your primary filter is fitted with a vacuum gauge (which reveals the extent of restriction), you will need to change the element at some regular engine-hours interval. Your engine manual should specify. In recognition that the primary filter captures most of the contaminants, it is a common and generally acceptable practice to change the secondary filter element at every other primary filter change.


This stuff is intended for Marine applications , but with the VERY poor quality diesel in trinidad , it may be applicable to road use.

Anyone knows much about this Polishing system? Does it have merit in an on road application - i.e. polish it before putting it in your tank?


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323_wagon_dude
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PostPosted: Mon Dec 10, 2007 6:34 pm 
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WOW...really good info


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wagon r
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 11, 2007 7:18 am 
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....well i learn something today... :|


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Cooper
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PostPosted: Tue Dec 11, 2007 10:08 am 
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Very interesting read. The guys in the maintenance thread did mention the draining of the sediment bowl a lot. Didn't know about the tank cleaning though. Good info! :mrgreen:


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Greypatch
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PostPosted: Thu Jan 24, 2008 2:31 pm 
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nice


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Stuckindmud
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PostPosted: Mon Feb 11, 2008 9:23 pm 
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Ok guys some MORE good info. : Taken from the FAQ`s section of Heavy Duty Diesel Council Site.

Q: What is the difference between a primary and secondary diesel fuel filter?
A: The primary fuel filter must offer low restriction because it is mounted on the suction side of the fuel pump where normally a suction pressure of only 5-6 pounds per square inch is available. This filter has the job of protecting the transfer pump and lightening the load of the secondary fuel filter (if installed). Primary fuel filters typically have a nominal rating of 10 - 30 microns.

Secondary fuel filters are mounted between the transfer pump and the injectors. The secondary fuel filter is designed to offer full protection to the fuel injectors. Since these filters are mounted after the transfer pump they tend to see much higher pressures than primary filters. Secondary fuel filters typically have a nominal rating of 2 - 10 microns.


Also

Q: What is the purpose a fuel/water separator?
A: Water flowing at high velocity between highly polished valve seats and through fine nozzle orifices causes a wearing action that approaches that of abrasion. The presence of water, especially with entrained air and various fuel components, causes rust and other chemical corrosion that eats away at the finely mated surfaces. Fuel/water separator filters use chemically treated paper to repel water which then settles by gravity to the bottom of the filter. Accumulated water can be drained from the filter during recommended service intervals if equipped with a drain valve or plug.

Q: What is asphaltene?
A: All diesel fuels to a degree contain a substance known as asphaltene. Asphaltene is a by-product of fuel as it oxidizes. Asphaltene particles are generally thought to be in the half micron - 2-micron range and are harmless to the injection system, as they are soft and deformable. As these tiny particles pass through the filter media they tend to stick to the individual fibers. If you were to cut open a filter that had choked after a normal service interval you would see a black, tarry substance on the dirty side of the element; this is asphaltene (oxidized fuel).

Q: What is the purpose a fuel/water separator?
A: Water flowing at high velocity between highly polished valve seats and through fine nozzle orifices causes a wearing action that approaches that of abrasion. The presence of water, especially with entrained air and various fuel components, causes rust and other chemical corrosion that eats away at the finely mated surfaces. Fuel/water separator filters use chemically treated paper to repel water which then settles by gravity to the bottom of the filter. Accumulated water can be drained from the filter during recommended service intervals if equipped with a drain valve or plug.


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Stuckindmud
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PostPosted: Mon Feb 11, 2008 9:28 pm 
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BTW :

Asphaltines -- are components of asphalt that are generally insoluble and are generally present to some extent in all diesel fuel. These black, tarry asphaltines are hard and brittle, and are made up of long molecules. Fuel with a high percentage of asphaltines will drastically shorten the life of a fuel filter.


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Stuckindmud
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PostPosted: Mon Feb 11, 2008 9:37 pm 
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More Good Stuff :)

Suction / Vacuum Side Fuel Filters

Suction-side fuel filters are located upstream from the pump. The fuel flows by vacuum through the filter as opposed to those located downstream from the pump where the fuel is forced, under pressure, through the filter.

Problems associated with suction/vacuum side fuel filters are usually not obvious. The most serious problem to consider is loss of vacuum. Vacuum loss caused by air leaks will result in loss of engine performance.

Air being sucked into the fuel system could result in lower fuel delivery. Power and performance will be affected by these conditions. Locating the air leaks in the fuel system is normally very difficult. The common conclusion is that there is a suction leak around the fuel filter.

One observation made in the field is the fact that during servicing of a suction-side fuel filter it is only partially full when removed.

Most suction-side fuel filters will be partially filled with fuel when removed from an engine. It may also seem that full utilization of the media is not being obtained. The air-vapor cavity or air entrapment is caused by the surface tension of the fuel. It can also be referred to as the passage resistance of wetted filter media to allow air or vapor to pass through. The magnitude of this resistance to vapor passage is related to paper pore size and fuel surface tension. By decreasing the pore size, one will increase resistance to vapor passage. An increase in surface tension will also result in an increase in resistance to vapor passage. Once the media pores are wetted with fuel, these pores will not allow the passage of air until the vacuum on the clean side is sufficiently greater than the vacuum on the dirty side of the filter. This vacuum differential increase will break the surface tension of the fluid bridging the pores.

The only time that the air will pass through the media is when a differential vacuum across the filter overcomes the surface tension. In actual engine installations of suction-side filters, when the primer or transfer pump is activated, a differential vacuum across the media is created. The differential vacuum is large enough to overcome the surface tension and allow the passage of air and/or fuel through the media. As the media is wetted, the air-vapor barrier is formed and so any new air vapor generated will be blocked from passing through the media.

With the fuel system completely sealed and assumed leak proof, then one may ask, how is the air generated and where does it come from? The source of air vapor is the diesel fuel itself. Similar to water, diesel fuel contains a certain amount of dissolved air, depending upon the fuel temperature, pressure on the fuel, specific gravity and the amount of aeration to which the fuel has been subjected.

Increasing the fuel temperature or a fuel pressure reduction will release the air. The amount of air released is dependent upon the degree of the air saturation of the fuel and the magnitude of temperature increase and pressure reduction.

In actual laboratory experiments duplicating a filter as installed on an engine, it has been proven that the filter will always be full on the clean side and air-vapor is present on the dirty side only. Therefore, there is always sufficient amounts of fuel leaving the filter. The reason that the filter appears partially full when removed from the engine is because as the seal between the filter and the mounting base is broken, the vacuum differential across the cartridge is also broken and the fuel level on the clean side and the dirty side of the cartridge are instantly equalized, thus resulting in a filter that appears to have had the same fuel level on both sides of the cartridge when under operation.

There are, however, instances that some filters upon removal from the engine do appear to be full of fuel. The reasons could be any of the following:

1. There are voids in the seal between the element and the end caps.
2. The element does not seal properly in the filter or housing.

When these conditions exist, a filter bypass condition exists and a filter may then be full of fuel when it is removed.

Remember that the air passage resistance is related to paper pore size. Therefore, a bypass in a filter will represent a large pore size. Hence, easier vapor passage.

Note of Caution: If a suction-side fuel filter is full of fuel, do not automatically assume that the filter is of an inferior quality. There are other reasons beyond the scope of this publication that contribute to this effect and may not necessarily mean filter bypass.


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wagon r
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PostPosted: Wed Feb 13, 2008 2:00 pm 
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The strainer in the fuel pump gets clogged up after a while (Ford Ranger). This causes the engine to not go beyond a certain RPM (3700 in mine) and belts out real blue smoke.

Clean this, and u will restore your power

no battery removal in the Ford.

just clean it with some WD40 or something, works wonders.

One strainer, just into the Injector Pump. You have to take out the main fuel line from after the sedimentor.


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3stagevtec
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PostPosted: Thu Nov 06, 2008 3:42 am 
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good info here!


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Stuckindmud
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 13, 2008 9:45 am 
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1. What is Diesel Fuel "ALGAE"?

Algae are a life form found in water, similar to algae growing in an aquarium. However, for years, people have been referring to tank sludge and to the jelly, slime and other contaminants found in fuel filters as "algae". The colloquialism "diesel fuel algae" is widely used and understood. However, there is no relationship between the "algae" growing in your aquarium and the sludge "growing" (forming) in your fuel tank and showing up on your filter elements.

There are three basic areas of concern in fuels and oil. They are: 1. water 2. in-organic debris (sand, dust, rust, etc.) and 3. organic debris (fuel breakdown products and waste products of fuel deterioration and re-polymerization). The organic debris represents more than 90% of all the contaminants found in fuels and oil. It is this organic debris, the sludgy, slimy, acidic material that people refer to as "diesel fuel algae". It could also be called polymer, tar or wax and asphalt!

In South America, people refer to the "Algae" as "mud". In gasoline, the organic fuel breakdown products are often referred to as gum, varnish, or lacquer. Taken literally these words could be confusing too.

BACK TO FAQ2. What is Diesel Fuel?

Diesel fuel is a very complex mixture of thousands of individual compounds with carbon numbers between 9 and 23 (number of carbon atoms per hydrocarbon* molecule) Most of these compounds are members of the paraffinic, naphthenic or aromatic class of hydrocarbons (HC). These three classes have different chemical and physical properties. The different relative proportions of the three classes is one of the factors that make one diesel fuel different from another. It influences fuel properties and affects its performance.
Diesel Fuel Carbon Chart
b

Up until about 15-20 years ago, refineries used only about 50% of a barrel of crude oil to make distillates such as gasoline, jet fuel and diesel. The remainder of the barrel of crude oil went to "residual oil". Today, as a result of different refining techniques and additive packages, the refinery uses 90% or more of the same barrel of crude, which clearly has consequences for fuel stability.
c

More than 90% of the debris on filter elements and the sludge in our storage tanks is organic material, fuel and oil breakdown residue. In most cases, this debris is acidic and not good for your engine. It causes corrosion in injectors, pumps and storage tanks.
d

The solids that form as the result of the inherent instability of the fuel and the natural process of degradation will accumulate in the bottom of your tank. The sludge will form a coating or bio-film on the walls and baffles of the tank, plug your filters and impact combustion efficiency. Eventually it will clog fuel lines and ruin your equipment.

*Hydrocarbons are organic compounds composed entirely of carbon and hydrogen divided in four major classes: paraffins, naphthenes, olefins, and aromatics. These classes share common structural features but differ in size, (number of carbon atoms per molecule) and/or geometry. While hydrogen and carbon are the predominant elements in crude oil, small amounts of sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen are also present and referred to as hetero-atoms (other-atoms). Compounds containing hetero-atoms are non-hydrocarbons. Typical non-hydrocarbons found in diesel are dibenzothiophene and carbazole, which play a large role in determining certain fuel properties.

BACK TO FAQ 3. What is the "stuff" that clogs my filters?
What is the

Filter plugging can have several causes. For example, low temperatures can cause wax crystallization, which can lead to filter plugging. An example would be using summer diesel in cold weather. Wax or paraffin is part of the diesel fuel. ALGAE-X® AFC 805 Winter Fuel Catalyst with Anti Gel is the answer to that problem.

Chemical incompatibility may cause dramatic filter plugging. This may happen when fuels with incompatible additive packages are mixed.

Contaminant build up resulting from excessive microbial growth and bio-degradation of fuel can cause filter plugging. Micro-organisms, bacteria and enzyme activity, fungus, yeast and mold cause fuel degradation and the formation of waste products. The process is similar to milk turning into cottage cheese, a different form of milk. Of all the microbial debris and waste products in the tank only about .01% is bugs. Even though microbes may cause and accelerate the process of fuel degradation, it should be clear that the waste products clogging your filter are not the microbes but fuel components which have formed solids.

Frequently, the application of a biocide aggravates the situation and turns bio-film into solids, creating a real fuel filter nightmare. Bio film develops through out the entire fuel system. It grows in the water fuel interface and on the walls, baffles, and bottoms of storage tanks. An unlucky end user may be filling up his tank and getting this debris delivered as a part of his fuel, for the same price as the fuel.

Poor thermal fuel stability can plug filters. Fuel will form particulates (solids) when exposed to pumps and the hot surfaces and pressure of the fuel injection system. This will result in an increase in asphaltene agglomerations, polymerization and a dramatic loss of combustion efficiency.

Fuel systems, in general, are designed to return a significant proportion of the fuel, not used for combustion, back to the tank. This return fuel is very hot and will promote polymerization and fuel breakdown. Eventually, more and more solids from the tank will reach the filter and over time, plug the filter. These problems continuously occur in commercially operated engines, such as trucks, heavy equipment, shipping, and power generation, but will also appear in recreational boats, RV's and all types of fuel storage tanks.

Truck engines are used continuously and, in most cases, the tanks "appear to be clean". However, a 2-micron filter element does not last very long, in general 15,000 miles or less. It should be 30,000 miles or more. In the marine industry 400 hours is in many instances SOP while filters should easily last 1000 hours or more.

The size of the largest diesel fuel molecule still within specs is approx. 30 Angstrom (that equals approx 0,003 of a micron). Compared to a 10-micron opening in a filter element, one can have 3333 of these particular molecules passing through the opening side by side. E.g. comparing the size of a baseball to two and a half football fields.

Short filter life is quite remarkable realizing how "thin" diesel fuel actually is and knowing how clean the tanks on most trucks "appear" to be.

Short filter life is symptomatic of polymerization, increase in the size of the fuel droplet, agglomeration of asphaltenes and the formation solids in fuel systems. The consequences are carbon build up in engines and exhaust systems, higher fuel consumption and excessive smoke.

BACK TO FAQ 4. Can diesel fuel plug your filters?

Yes, it can. The stuff that clogs your filters is actually fuel in some way, shape or form. In excess of 90% of this organic debris are fuel breakdown products. It is not sand, dust, stones, rust or in-organic matter that blocks your filter.

The inorganic material like sand, dust and other particles will not cause your filters to clog. In fact, a lot of sand in a fuel filter would act as extra filtration. The pores between the sand particles are much larger than the pores in a standard fuel filter element. Sand filters are commonly used to filter water. A hair is approximately 80 micron and fuel filter elements range all the way from 30 micron for a prefilter to 2 micron in a fine filter.

BACK TO FAQ 5. How does fuel stability affect the user?

Fuel stability is a serious concern for the diesel fuel user.

The chemistry of diesel fuel instability involves the chemical conversion of precursors to species of higher molecular weight with limited solubility. The conversion process often involves oxidation of the precursors. Fuel solvency plays a role, since the development of insolubles is always a function of both the presence of higher molecular weight species and the fuel capacity to dissolve them.

We all realize that fuel is an unstable, organic liquid that goes "bad". Your vendor will always sell you the highest fuel quality possible. However, due to a variety of circumstances fuel may have "aged", oxidized and/or contain water. It may have been contaminated before it was delivered to you or to your vendor.

Fuel has to travel from the refinery to the end user destination. It is pumped through pipelines, barged, trucked and stored in tank farms. Diurnal changes in temperature and exposure to the atmosphere will cause condensation and water in storage systems. None of this will help improve fuel quality.

When your fuel is finally used, it is exposed to the heat and pressure of engine injection systems, centrifuges, pumps, heaters causing an increase in asphaltene agglomerations, which negatively impacts combustion efficiency and emissions.

BACK TO FAQ 6. What is bad fuel?

Fuel is made to certain ASTM specifications. When it does not meet these specs., we could refer to it as "bad fuel". However, we tend to refer to fuel as "bad fuel" when we see symptoms such as: -dark hazy fuel, -filter plugging. -sludge build up in tanks, -poor engine performance, -excessive smoke & emissions, -etc. We refer to fuel as "good fuel", when it is clear and bright. Or rather in that case, no reference is made at all to our fuel. We simply use it and take fuel quality and peak engine performance for granted. Bad fuel is fuel that does not meet ASTM specifications.
e

BACK TO FAQ 7. What does Optimal Fuel Quality mean for me?

Optimal Fuel Quality means Peak Engine Performance. New engines will retain maximum engine efficiency much longer using good quality fuel. ALGAE-X® treated fuel extends the life of both old and new engines.

ALGAE-X® Fuel Conditioning Technology Optimizes Fuel Quality and eliminates the build up of organic solids, tank sludge, acid formation and clogged filters. It enhances combustion by reducing the size of the fuel droplet, eliminating carbon build up and reduces harmful exhaust.

The implementation of ALGAE-X® Technology, lowers operating cost, brings equipment in compliance with the Clean Air Act, and deals with environmental concerns about smoke, particulate and oil sheen on the water.

BACK TO FAQ 8. Is "Dark Fuel" the same as "Bad Fuel" and can I still use it?
clogged filter elements

This is a question many of us have asked more than once. And what we really want to know is: "Will the stuff damage my engines?" Engines are expensive, ruining an engine is costly and operating an engine on "bad fuel" is not wise.

We all know that most engine failures start in the fuel tank. When all mechanical parts are in good operating condition, the cooling and lube systems are working, the lube oil is clean and there is a sufficient supply of clean air getting to the combustion chamber, a diesel engine or turbine could almost run forever. The only limiting factor is Fuel Quality. Dark fuel is symptomatic of poor quality and even though, in most cases, it can be used, fuel in this condition will provide poor combustion and filtration problems.

"Dark fuel" is in general indicative of oxidation and that the process of fuel degradation is in a far advanced stage. Hazy fuel is indicative of water emulsified in the fuel. In general, dark hazy fuel will not damage your engine. It indicates however, poor fuel quality, which will definitely not provide you with peak engine performance.

Using less than optimal fuel quality negatively impacts engine efficiency and accelerates the process that makes new engines old.

Diesel fuel can range from colorless, to amber or light brown color, depending on the crude oil and the refinery process used to produce it. In addition, dyes may be added to change the fuel color for tax identification purposes.

In time, stored fuel will darken due to oxidation, repolymerization and agglomeration of certain components. The darkening is accompanied by the formation of sediment that plugs filters and causes poor combustion. Fuel & Oil vendors suggest that if diesel fuel is stored for emergency use, it should be replaced with fresh fuel within a year, unless special precautions or remedial actions are taken.

The university of Idaho conducted tests on the life expectancy of fuels to determine the timeline on degradation of stored #2 diesel. The results indicated 26% degradation after 28 days of storage. Disposing of Fuel and purchasing New Fuel is a very expensive proposition. Many larger companies, government institutions, hospitals, etc. have the dumping of fuel and the purchasing of new fuel as standard and accepted practice.

The implementation of ALGAE-X® Technology eliminates these costly, wasteful, and environmentally unfriendly dumping practices. ALGAE-X® will preserve fuel integrity almost indefinitely and can help you put in place good housekeeping measures along with a quality fuel-monitoring program. (Please call us)

BACK TO FAQ 9. How does my engine negatively impact fuel quality?

A diesel engine uses only some of the fuel it pulls from the tank. All of that fuel goes to the high-pressure fuel pump and to the injectors operating under enormous pressure and high temperatures.

The surplus fuel the engine is not using goes back to the tank. This fuel is continuously re-circulated and exposed to extreme pressure and heat, which results in the agglomeration of asphaltenes, the high carbon content, heavy end fuel molecules. It leads to the formation of larger and larger clusters and solids, which are very difficult to completely combust. These solids may grow so large that they will not pass through the filter element and become part of the polymer and sludge build up plugging the filter.

In addition, the hot fuel coming back to the tank will raise the fuel temperature in the tank, cause condensation and contribute to microbial contamination, fuel break down, bio fouling and the build up of sludge and acid.

Large fuel droplets and high asphaltene concentrations require more time, more energy and higher temperatures to combust than is available in engines during the combustion cycle and before the exhaust valve opens.

Any device in the fuel system exposing the fuel to stress (heat and pressure) such as pumps, heaters, or centrifuges will increase the formation of asphaltenes and negatively impact combustion.

BACK TO FAQ 10. Isn't my filter supposed to keep my fuel system clean?

Well, filtration simply cannot and will not do that. At best, filters, separators and centrifuges remove debris suspended in the fuel before the fuel reaches the engine. Stopping, preventing or reversing the process of fuel breakdown is a completely different matter that can be addressed and resolved with ALGAE-X® Fuel Conditioners. It is not very likely that filtration, (either the filter on the engine, or an external filtration system) will remove the sludge coating from the walls and baffles of your storage tank and the use of biocides will almost always aggravate the situation. Filtration has no effect on fuel break down processes whatsoever.

Filters are primarily designed to remove in-organic debris from the fluid stream and, as we have seen, they become clogged with organic debris, resulting from fuel degradation. The water separator is designed to remove free-water. However, a separator, filter combination or centrifuge cannot remove emulsified water. Free water in fuel can simply be removed from the fuel stream with the use of a water separator. Several well-known and very efficient combination Filter/Water separator devices are on the market. They are essential in any diesel engine application.

Simple in-organic debris, dust, sand, rust, etc. can easily be removed from the fuel stream with a filter. That is what the filter was made for. This in-organic material will be trapped in the filter without clogging it. Most of the debris we see on the filter elements (the stuff that plugs our filters) is the result of the fuel having begun to form solids.

BACK TO FAQ 11. What are the problems related to long-term fuel storage?
sludge in fuel

Temperature, humidity and condensation are very important factors in managing fuel integrity. The presence of free water provides the medium for microbiological growth that results in the formation of slime and acids causing corrosion of metal surfaces such as storage tanks, pumps, injectors, etc.

Other key factors leading to fuel deterioration, polymerization, and stratification in storage tanks are chemical incompatibility and stress caused by heat and pressure of pumps, centrifuges, and heaters. Since most diesel engines return considerable amounts of fuel back to the tank, it is easy to see that the engine itself contributes to fuel deterioration.

BACK TO FAQ 12. How do we protect stored fuel?

Good housekeeping and purchasing clean, dry fuel from a reputable supplier are definitely step one.

In applications, such as emergency power generation, we recommend installing a fuel re-circulation/filtration system like the fully automated ALGAE-X® STS Fuel Conditioning and Filtration System.

These commercial high capacity systems typically have the following basic components: a pump, an ALGAE-X® Fuel Conditioner, a filter/water separator, a water block or fine filter, a timer, and an electronically controlled monitoring systems with alarms.

It is recommended to start out the program with implementing the ALGAE-X® Fuel Catalyst AFC-705 to stabilize the fuel in the tank. Additional components in AFC-705 Fuel Catalyst are corrosion inhibitors and lubricity enhancers to not only preserve fuel integrity, but also to protect your engine equipment.

Traditionally, biocides and filtration were the only treatment available. In many cases, we have seen that this regime caused more harm than good. The use of an adequate fuel quality management program and service, regular fuel testing to monitor fuel integrity are an absolute necessity and will save money. Periodically adding stabilizer is another common practice used for example with nuclear power plants, which all have back-up diesel powered generators.

Installing a dedicated ALGAE-X® Fuel Quality Management system that automatically operates and purifies the fuel is becoming a rapidly accepted standard maintenance for hospitals, computer and telecommunications companies.

We also need to remove from our storage tanks any water and monitor fuel quality for microbial contamination on regular intervals. Since most tanks do not have a water sump or a sloping bottom that can be drained at the lowest point, we may need to find other ways to remove water from the fuel supply. To remove water from fuel tanks we recommend the use of either the ALGAE-X® "Water Eliminator" or an ALGAE-X® Tank Cleaning / Fuel Conditioning and Filtration System.

The ALGAE-X® "Water Eliminator" is either a small nylon or a larger stainless steel cylinder, containing a special polymer. The polymer will absorb the water (not the fuel) for easy removal. The ALGAE-X® MTC is a compact mobile tank cleaning system used to remove water from the tank bottom and works as a fuel dialysis or fuel polishing system.

BACK TO FAQ 13. Does low sulfur diesel fuel have enough lubricity?

Generally - Yes. Even though the process used to lower the sulfur in diesel can also remove some of the components that give the fuel its lubricity. We recommend to use AFC-705 Fuel Catalyst with lubricity enhancer, as needed, to raise the lubricity to an acceptable level and protect injection systems of the engine.


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ray_S.T.R.A_man
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PostPosted: Sun Dec 14, 2008 4:24 am 
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this is some kinda of thesis or something?


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4X4 Trinidad
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PostPosted: Thu Jan 15, 2009 11:02 am 
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Very good info indeed

Should any one be Interest in the algae-x System , we are now the offical dealer of the Product in Trinidad .

We offer a engine check with all Algae purchases, contact us TODAY !!!


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V2NR 3.0
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PostPosted: Wed Sep 02, 2009 11:56 pm 
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good read


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lighthammer
PostPosted: Thu Jul 22, 2010 10:11 am 
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Two interesting articles on Fuel Systems:

- Article 1 - dealing withDiesel Fuel Contamination & Filter Plugging.

- Article 2 - The design & performance of specific diesel fuel filters from the 7th International Filtration Conference.


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Big Z
PostPosted: Thu Jul 22, 2010 10:32 am 
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Location: Mobile# 734-7669 Amsoil, Redline, Royal Purple, Valvoline & Luberfiner, Fuel Injector Cleaning
I would suggest a god diesel treatment as well, since our diesel is low cetane and tends to have water.
A good treatment increases power, removes water and reduces engine noise.

Shameless Plug: Redline Diesel Fuel Catalyst in stock.


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zhanghuxyz
PostPosted: Fri Sep 03, 2010 2:28 am 
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The fuel system supplies, transfers, cleans and delivers fuel to the engines' cylinders to facilitate combustion, thereby producing power. Although fuel systems vary from engine to engine, all systems are the same in that they must supply fuel to the combustion chamber and control the amount of fuel supplied in relation to the amount of air.ugg stiefel
The fuel system should meter the exact amount of fuel and deliver the fuel to the injector assembly with precise timing. As the fuel is delivered, the final conditions for providing complete combustion are atomization and the spray pattern of the fuel. Atomization is accomplished as a result of the injection pressure, due in part to the diameter of the holes in the injector. The spacing, angle and number of holes in the injector tip determine the spray pattern.ugg boots
In modern diesel engines, fuel system pressures are extremely high, ranging in the 20,000 to 30,000 psi range. These high pressures are necessary to ensure optimum fuel economy, as well as providing exhaust emissions that comply with more stringent Environmental Protection Agency regulations.ugg schuhe


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nadeem1414
PostPosted: Tue Oct 12, 2010 6:03 am 
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this is a very nice site the site giving the detail about vehicle like Trucks so this is a very impressive web site which makes the vehicle parts introductions.


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V2NR 3.0
PostPosted: Wed Oct 13, 2010 1:52 pm 
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Prevent Algae
Like mold on bread, algae and fungi can thrive inside fuel tanks. These microbes require both fuel and water, so the drier the fuel, the smaller your algae problem is likely to be. However, keeping all water out of the fuel is improbable, so diesel fuel should always be treated with a biocide to prevent the growth of microbes. Avoid products that contain alcohol, which attacks O-rings and other rubber parts in the fuel system.

Like what exactly ?


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ThatGuy
PostPosted: Tue Feb 22, 2011 2:17 pm 
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Great stuff guys. My Sportero was running fine for over 2 years before it got some bad fuel. Has not been quite the same since. Using a lot of diesel treatments but not getting there quickly enough. I am seriously considering draining the tank. Any ideas?


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MechGenius
PostPosted: Tue Mar 20, 2012 6:40 pm 
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Stuckindmud wrote:
Fuel System Maintenance
by Don Casey

"Give a diesel engine clean fuel and it will run forever." This old saw is less of an exaggeration than you might think. Repair statistics show that 90% of diesel engine problems stem from contaminated fuel. The promise of eliminating 9 out of 10 potential failures should put fuel-system maintenance at the top of your list.

Start With Clean Fuel
Don't make your task more difficult by taking on contaminated fuel. The bad things that happen to diesel fuel inside your tank, which I am going to describe momentarily, also occur inside the supplier's storage tanks. That isn't a problem for you if the fuel is efficiently filtered on the way to the nozzle. If you have any doubts about the cleanliness of the fuel, pump some into a clean glass jar and let it sit a few minutes. Water and dirt will settle to the bottom. If you see either, filter the fuel before it goes into the tank, or better yet, buy your fuel somewhere else.

Keep Out Water
Gasoline engines can ingest a certain amount of water with the fuel without serious consequences, but if a single droplet of water in diesel fuel makes it all the way to the cylinder, the sudden steaming of the water can blow the tip right off an injector. This is the reason for having a water-separating filter, but too much water in the fuel can overwhelm this filter.

If you took aboard dry fuel, shouldn't it stay dry inside your tank? No. Contaminated fuel is only one way water gets into the fuel aboard boats. It also leaks in around the fill cap, it is occasionally driven in through a flooded vent fitting, and it forms inside the tank as condensation.

You already know to check any doubtful source to protect against pumping fuel aboard that already has water in it. But have you ever checked the seal on your deck fill? Some have O-rings (missing?), some have gaskets, and some depend on tight metal to metal or plastic to metal contact to seal.


Water also condenses out of the air inside the tank. Due to the daily heating/cooling cycle, a small amount of moisture will condense out of the air every day. The more air in the tank, the more potential for condensation, so it is a good idea to keep tanks topped off, especially while not being used.

Prevent Algae
Like mold on bread, algae and fungi can thrive inside fuel tanks. These microbes require both fuel and water, so the drier the fuel, the smaller your algae problem is likely to be. However, keeping all water out of the fuel is improbable, so diesel fuel should always be treated with a biocide to prevent the growth of microbes. Avoid products that contain alcohol, which attacks O-rings and other rubber parts in the fuel system.

Tank Care
No matter how meticulous you are about the fuel you take aboard, dirt, water, and microbes-dead or alive-accumulate in the bottom of the tank over time. They may seem harmless enough just lying there, but the first time you are motoring in bumpy conditions, they get churned up and find their way to the fuel pick-up, either in small amounts or in big gulps. If you are lucky, this contamination simply plugs your primary filter and starves the engine of fuel until it dies-hopefully not at some critical moment. If you are unlucky, some of this debris finds a way past the filters and damages the injector pump ($$!) or the engine ($$$$!!).

It is advisable to clean out the tank periodically. How often depends on fuel quality and even tank material, but every couple of years you should at least draw some fuel from the very bottom of the tank to check for water and/or sediment. You cannot do this through the pick-up tube feeding the engine because it is an inch or so above the bottom. If the tank doesn't have a drain fitting or a clean-out port, you will need to find some other way to get a suction hose to the bottom.

Mobile services are also available that draw all the fuel out of your tank and circulate it through a filtration system. This is known as "polishing" the fuel, and done properly it removes the majority of the sediment from the tank.

Fuel Lines
Proper fuel lines last a long time, but improper lines can shed internally and contribute to fuel contamination. Metal fuel lines are less susceptible to chemical deterioration, but the supply line connected to the engine must never be metal because movement and vibration will eventually cause the rigid line to crack. Flexible hose is unaffected by vibration . Makes sure the feed hose is Type A-1. If it is, that designation will be stenciled on the hose. Vent and fill hoses can be Type A-2. Fill lines should exhibit an uninterrupted drop to the tank; any dip that allows fuel to stand risks hose deterioration and fuel contamination.

Filters
There is a reason that the fuel filter mounted on a diesel engine is called the secondary filter. The engine manufacturer expects this filter to deal only with contamination small enough to have passed through the primary filter. Every diesel engine must have both a primary and a secondary filter, and the primary filter must remove water from the fuel. I prefer a primary filter with a clear sediment bowl, which should be inspected daily. Water in the bowl is visible evidence of water in the tank. If you need to drain the bowl (it has a plug just for this function) more often than every 100 engine hours, the tank needs cleaning.

Filters should be changed when they are dirty, but unless your primary filter is fitted with a vacuum gauge (which reveals the extent of restriction), you will need to change the element at some regular engine-hours interval. Your engine manual should specify. In recognition that the primary filter captures most of the contaminants, it is a common and generally acceptable practice to change the secondary filter element at every other primary filter change.


This stuff is intended for Marine applications , but with the VERY poor quality diesel in trinidad , it may be applicable to road use.

Anyone knows much about this Polishing system? Does it have merit in an on road application - i.e. polish it before putting it in your tank?


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MechGenius
PostPosted: Tue Mar 20, 2012 6:43 pm 
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The fuel itself is not polished, fuel treatments like ATS polish the injector venturi, removing sludge, and converting dribbling injectors into sprayers.


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spydafrog
PostPosted: Sat Mar 24, 2012 1:39 pm 
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Guys what are your thoughts on these products. Noticeable gains, frequency of use etc...

AMSOIL Cetane Boost Additive: http://www.technilube.com/pics/products/acb.jpg

Liqui-Moly Diesel Intake System Cleaner:
http://img1.wantitall.co.za/images/Show ... 3v3yZL.jpg


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lighthammer
PostPosted: Tue Mar 27, 2012 1:03 am 
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I use Amsoil cetane Boost all the time in my navara, comes in a 16-oz bottle and you put in a 2-oz dose everytime you fill up.

Can't say much for power, cuz the navara already has so much power so a minor 7-point cetane increase isn't much to talk about.

I did notice that the engine idles a bit smoother when I add the concentrate, and if I don't use it for a couple fill-ups it sounds a bit rattlier.
Best to combine it with the Amsoil Diesel concentrate, for cleaning & fuel-system maintenance.


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reni27
PostPosted: Tue Mar 27, 2012 7:48 am 
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LIQUI MOLY intake system cleaner DIESEL

Removes contamination and deposits in the intake and throttle valve areas, which disrupt smooth engine running. Use of the cleaner is recommended during every inspection in order to prevent heavy deposits.

Special active solvent with a high-tech additive combination for removing typical contamination and deposits found in the diesel intake and throttle valve areas. Dissolves and removes all greasy deposits and contaminants such as oil, resins, adhesive residues, etc. Guarantees operability of all moving parts and reduces fuel consumption. Increases the reliability of diesel-powered engines. Important: Only suitable for use in diesel engines. Recommended for preventative use during the inspection. Suitable for vehicles with EGR (exhaust gas recirculation) valve and DPF (diesel particulate filte


Last edited by reni27 on Thu Mar 29, 2012 7:58 am, edited 1 time in total.

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reni27
PostPosted: Tue Mar 27, 2012 7:51 am 
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LIQUI Moly Super Diesel Additive

Liqui Mloy Super Diesel Additivewith Cetan Plus for greater engine performance, less Diesel knocking, quieter running and easier starting. Cleans the engine and injection system and prevents injector needles from seizing or resinifying. Secures the optimum utilisation and energy-conserving combustion of fuels. Reduces corrosion and wear. The plus for super-Diesel fuels. Suitable for low-sulphur Diesel fuels. Tested for compatibility with
turbochargers.

Suitable for all Diesel engines in passenger and commercials vehicles, construction machinery and stationary engines. Outstandingly suitable for preserving engines, even during long periods of non-use under extreme conditions. With long-term effect for 2000 km. When the product is added, the tank must be at least 3 /4 full. 250 ml is sufficient for up to 75 litres of fuel.


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spydafrog
PostPosted: Tue Mar 27, 2012 11:21 am 
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thanks for the input guys. Much appreciated.


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liquimolytt
PostPosted: Tue Jul 03, 2012 7:25 pm 
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Try Liqui Moly Diesel Purge for diesel engines and Pro Line Benzin System Cleaner for gasoline engines
check out the facebook page Liqui Moly Trinidad & Tobago for locations whish the product is available


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liquimolytt
PostPosted: Fri Jul 06, 2012 9:46 am 
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Liqui Moly Super Diesel Additive
with Cetan Plus for greater engine performance, less Diesel knocking, quieter running and easier starting. Cleans the engine and injection system and prevents injector needles from seizing or resinifying. Secures the optimum utilisation and energy-conserving combustion of fuels. Reduces corrosion and wear. The plus for super-Diesel fuels. Suitable for low-sulphur Diesel fuels. Tested for compatibility with
turbochargerIntended use
Suitable for all Diesel engines in passenger and commercials vehicles, construction machinery and stationary engines. Outstandingly suitable for preserving engines, even during long periods of non-use under extreme conditions. With long-term effect for 2000 km. When the product is added, the tank must be at least 3 /4 full. 250 ml is sufficient for up to 75 litres of fuel.
http://www.liqui-moly.de/liquimoly/medi ... e/2814.jpg


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neckto
PostPosted: Wed Aug 08, 2012 8:45 pm 
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question


how about hooking up two or more secondary fuel filters in line. would this help? would this restrict fuel flow?


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