The question was "Can the Universe be created in 6 days?"
Topic of debate:
How do we know the Universe is 13.799±0.021 billion years old & it cannot be 6 days old or even 46 billion years old?
My answer is: "We don't know"
The Age of the observable Universe is not objectively defined by science. It is highly dependent on certain factors and does not remain the same for everyone and everything. I aim to prove that it is possible (using only science) that the observable universe can be 6 days old but for the start of this debate let's discuss the 13.799±0.021 billion year old observable universe claim.Part 1: Is the Universe 13.799±0.021 billion years old?
The length of time that a person has lived or a thing has existed.
A distinct period of history.
The average age of an event is found by determining the time taken between the start & finish of the event. The event in question is the expansion of the observable universe. All evidence suggest that the present state of the observable universe came from a singularity.
For the purpose of this debate I will use the singularity as the the event start state & the limit of the expansion as the event end state.
Time = Distance/Velocity or t = d/v
Therefore we need to know the distance and relative velocity of the universe to know the age of the universe.
Let's apply the formula.
Time = Distance/Velocity
of the Universe
of the Universe
This is how they actually did it:
"You can actually calculate an estimate for the age of the Universe from Hubble's Law. The distance between two galaxies is D. The apparent
velocity with which they are separating from each other is v. At some point, the galaxies were touching, and we can consider that time the moment of the Big Bang.
If you take the separation between the two galaxies (D) and divide that by the apparent velocity (v), that will leave you with how long it took for the galaxies to reach their current separation. The standard analogy here is to consider that you are now 300 miles from home. You drove 60 mph the entire time, so how long did it take you to get here? Well, 300 miles / 60 mph = 5 hours.
So the time it has taken for the galaxies to reach their current separations is t = D / v.
But from Hubble's Law, we know
that v = H0 x D.
So, t = D / v = D / (H0 x D) = 1 / H0. So you can take 1/H0 as an estimate
for the age of the Universe.
The best estimate
for H0 = 73 km/s/Mpc. To turn this into an age, we'll have to do a unit conversion.
Since 1 Mpc = 3.08 x 1019 km, H0 = (73 km/s/Mpc) x (1 Mpc/3.08 x 1019 km) = 2.37 x 10-18 1/s.
So the age of the Universe is t = 1/H0 = 1 / 2.37 x 10-18 1/s = 4.22 x 1017 s = 13.4 billion years.
V = Ho D
V is the observed velocity of the galaxy away from us, usually in km/sec
H is Hubble's "constant", in km/sec/Mpc
D is the distance to the galaxy in Mpc
If the universe has been expanding at a constant speed since its beginning, the Universe's age would simply be 1/Ho.
Find the inverse of your value of Ho.
Multiply the inverse by 3.09 x 1019 km/Mpc to cancel the distance units."
Formula to determine CMB velocity:
cH0300105 km s−173 km s−1 Mpc−141103 Mpc so that relativistic effects can be ignored because the universe is spatially homogenous and isotropic
In the explanation of the calculation of Age of the Universe they specifically stated that the hubble constant was inferred
and that the velocity is roughly 74.2 km/sec/mpc ± 3.7 km/ sec.
Assumptions are used to determine velocity of the universe, but it is also stated that they "know
that v = H0 x D.".
Why make a claim of certainty when there are unknown variables in the equation?
The cosmological principle:The observable universe is very large, but it is probably very small compared to the whole universe, which may even be infinite.Part 2: CAN the Universe be 46 billion years old?
Firstly I would like to make it very clear that proving something "can be" is not the same as proving that it "is".
The observable universe should have an age limit:
v < c
Age of the observable Universe = 14.26 gigaparsecs / < 299,792,458 m/s
Age of the observable Universe < 46 billion years
It cannot be ≥ 46 billion years because time does not exist at the speed of light.Part 3: CAN the Universe be 6 days old?
The Universe CAN be less than 6 days old if inflated at near the speed of light dependent on who the observer is due to the effects of time dilation.
Does the expansion of the universe cause time dilation?Yes
A non-co-moving observer measures a smaller time interval. So whereas all co-moving observers agree that the universe is about 13.8 billion years old, a non-co-moving observer measures the age of the universe to be younger, how young depending on how fast he moves with respect to the co-moving observers.
Lets take a look at the mathematics of special relativity! The famous equation that describes the amount of time dilation you experience is given by:At Warp 37 (less than light speed) the observable universe is less than 1 second old.
If you inflated the observable universe at warp 37 speed how long did it take you?
Next debate topic:
If a finite bubble inflates at light speed in the vacuum of space & then collapses, would the resulting data mimic our own universe?